· Develop critical thinking regarding variables and their distributions.

Discussion ( 150 words and sources and References) ( this is what need to be done)

Reflect on your research intentions and a variable which may be potentially of interest to you. Please describe this variable and how you may measure it (e.g., which sample will you approach). Then explain whether you expect it to be normally distributed and the logic for your assumption. If you expect a deviation from normality, please explain how you may deal with it. You may search external sources for addressing the last point.

The followings are the resources for the discussion.

NOTE FOR THIS Discussion
Learning Outcomes

· Develop critical thinking regarding variables and their distributions.

Module Overview

In this module we use the language and knowledge we acquired in the previous module and start talking about basic statistical measures, which allow us to understand the data we collect. Before we run inferential analyses, we need to be able to describe the data and understand its qualities. For these purposes, we will discuss the concepts and applications of frequency distribution, shapes of distributions, skewness and kurtosis measures, and measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median), measures of dispersion (standard deviation, variance and range). We will then discuss when to use which measure and emphasize the advantages of using well-validated existing scales when they exist. Finally, we will discuss one of the most important distributions in management research, namely the normal distribution which is the basis for most statistical techniques we will in this course and beyond. In this context, we will also discuss z-scores, probability distribution and percentiles.

Required Reading

On measures of central tendency:

  1. Dietz, D., Barr, C. D., & Çetinkaya-Rundel, M. (2016). OpenIntro statistics, 3rd ed. (The textbook is available under a Creative Commons license. Visit openintro.org for a free PDF, to download the textbook’s sources, or for more information about the license.) https://www.openintro.org/stat/textbook.php?stat_book=os Chapters 2, 3, and 4.

  2. http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~japhill/ho3s04.pdf

  3. Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4HAYd0QnRc

  4. Watch: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RAekTsenqPI

On the Normal distribution

  1. https://www3.nd.edu/~rwilliam/stats1/x21.pdf

  2. http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/understanding-the-statistical-properties-of-the-no.html

  3. http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-find-a-percentile-for-a-normal-distribution.html

Optional Reading: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uanvaJCYY_8


What I do know when reflecting on my experience as a Chief Executive Officer in my private firm, in most cases, starting and running a business is a chance which requires courage and awareness. It is clear to me that, owners of serious businesses do official and non-official market research to make informed business decisions. better research starts with a hypothesis, a statement making a prediction based on a set of observations (Siegel, 2011).

Possible hypothesis

Change of working hours will positively affect productivity of employees

Testing the hypothesis

How will the increase in working hours change the productivity by Z factor test? This will be done through statistical methods

Possible results

The increase in working works will possibly yield productivity. It is believed that an increase in working hours with a constant number of hours will increase a positive productive (Siegel, 2011).


Siegel, A. (2011). Practical Business Statistics. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

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