· Synthesize the five studies in such a way as to lead logically to your (a) hypothesis and (b) research design in the next section.

Stage 1: Topic Proposal with First Source

Propose the topic for your research proposal. It must be unquestionably criminological, be explanatory, be policy-oriented (i.e., evaluation research), lend itself to hypothesizing and empirical investigation, allow you to address directly all of these assignment requirements. Using complete sentences—along with proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation—and answer the following questions in the order they are asked below. Number each new question. (Question 9 does not require a complete-sentence response.)

1-What is your general topic? What is your proposed unit of analysis?

The topic I have suggested for my research proposal is Race in relation to crime. My purpose will be to define whether there is a relationship to why crimes occur by comparing crime rates between different races. Does one race tend to commit more crimes than the other? and if so Why ? I plan on utilizing “Race” as the independent variable and “crime” as the dependent one

2-What explanatory, policy-oriented research question would you ask to get started on this topic? For example, “Does drug education reduce juvenile drug use?”

Is there a relationship between race and the commission of crimes?

3- What will be your independent variable?

Independent variable: Race

4-What will be your dependent variable?

Dependent variable: Crime

5-What would be your first source for your literature review? Provide a working hyperlink to the research article along with the full APA-style Reference-list entry for it.

First source for literature review:

Butler, P. (2010). One Hundred Years of Race and Crime. Retrieved July 9, 2018, from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&httpsredir=1&article=7368&context=jclc

6- Provide a Justified Sampling Process for your proposal

I will use the Stratified Sampling process because I will narrow down my population into different groups among races.

Stage 2: Hypothesis with 5 Articles and References List

1-State your explanatory Hypothesis. (Professor mentioned I needed to come up with a better hypothesis than this one below)

Explanatory Hypothesis: African Americans commit crimes at a higher rate per capita than Whites do

2- Provide a working hyperlink to your first research article

Working hyperlink 1: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf

3- Provide a working hyperlink to your second research article

Working hyperlink 2: https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html

4- Provide a working hyperlink to your third research article.

Working hyperlink 3:


5- Provide a working hyperlink to your fourth research article.

Working hyperlink 4:


6-Provide a working hyperlink to your fifth research article.

Working Hyperlink 6:


7- Provide your complete APA-style References list.

Cherry R (February 16, 2017) Race and Rising Violent Crime. Retrieved July 23, 2018 from https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2017/02/16/race_and_rising_violent_crime.html

Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice “Race and Crime” Retrieved July 23, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/legal-and-political-magazines/race-and-crime

Ministry of Justice (2015) Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2018, from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480250/bulletin.pdf

Quillian L. & Pager Devah (2001) Black Neighbors, Higher Crime? The role of Racial Stereotypes in Evaluations of Neighborhood Crime. Retrieved from https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/ajs_quillianpager.pdf

Unz, R., Kersey, P., Reed, F., Taylor, J., Cathey, B. D., & Derbyshire, J. (July 20, 2013). Race and Crime in America. Retrieved July 23, 2018, from http://www.unz.com/runz/race-and-crime-in-america/

Stage 3: Outline of Complete Research Proposal

Provide a detailed sentence outline of the complete research proposal (Instructions on separate document). Treat your hypothesis as the thesis statement. Include APA-style in-text citations throughout

FormatInclude a heading in the upper left margin of the first page containing: your first and last name, the semester and year, and the name of the assignment. Double space, with 1-inch margins, left-aligned text, and 12-point Times New Roman font throughout. Number all pages, including the first one, and set the page numbers in Times New Roman.


1. Introduction section

a.       Introduce the topic, establishing its context

b.      Justify the significance of studying the topic

c.       State your research question and hypothesis

d.      Identify and briefly describe the proposed research design

e.      Provide a “roadmap” of the rest of the paper

2. Literature Review section, titled “Literature Review”

· Provide an introductory paragraph for the section

· Subsection titled “Existing Research”

· Summarize your five research articles topic by topic rather than study by study, covering these six topics for each article

i.      Research question(s)/hypothesis (or hypotheses)

ii.      Theoretical framework/orientation

iii.      Research design

iv.      Sampling

v.      Independent and dependent variable measurement

vi.      Key findings

· Subsection titled “Summary of the Existing Research”

· Synthesize the five studies in such a way as to lead logically to your (a) hypothesis and (b) research design in the next section.

3. Methodology section, titled “Methodology”

· Drawing from your literature review, articulate the hypothesis to be tested in your research proposal

· Drawing from your literature review, identify and describe the research design you will use to test your hypothesis, and explain why this research design is the most appropriate. Research designs options include: experiment, survey, or content analysis. Check with the professor if you would like to propose a different research design.

· Subsection titled “Sampling”

i.      Propose an appropriate, specific sampling design

ii.      Identify your population

iii.      Identify your unit of analysis

iv.      Specify your targeted sample size

· Subsection titled “Measurements”

i.      Provide an introductory paragraph to this subsection

ii.      Sub-subsection titled “Dependent variable”

1.       Specify the name of your key dependent variable

2.      Identify its categories and codes

iii.      Sub-subsection titled “Independent variable”

1.       Specify the name of your key independent variable

2.      Identify its categories and codes

iv.      Sub-subsection “Control variables”

1.       One at a time, specify the name of at least two logical control variables

2.      In the same order, identify their categories and codes

· Subsection titled “Limitations”

i.      Cover causality, validity, reliability, and ethics

1.       Discuss the proposed study’s potential strengths in at least one paragraph

2.      Discuss the proposed study’s potential weaknesses in at least one paragraph

4. References list (in APA style on a separate sheet of paper at the end of the outline)

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