. Evaluate motor fleet accident data analysis and trending processes. 6.1 Explain the importance of accident reporting systems and how it can benefit a company. 6.2 Assess the uses and limitation of safety incentive programs.

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Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

6. Evaluate motor fleet accident data analysis and trending processes. 6.1 Explain the importance of accident reporting systems and how it can benefit a company. 6.2 Assess the uses and limitation of safety incentive programs.

Course/Unit Learning


Learning Activity

6.1 Course Lesson, pp. 178-180, Assessment

6.2 Course Lesson, pp. 181-182 and 2 websites, Assessment

Reading Assignment Chapter 8: Benchmarking and Performance Criteria, pp. 169-186 In order to access the following resources, click the links below: Safety Pays. (n.d.). 12 essential elements for an effective safety incentive program. Retrieved from

http://www.safetypays.com/essential-safety-elements Vergara, L. (2009). How to develop a fleet safety award program. Retrieved from http://www.automotive-


Unit Lesson Introduction Benchmarking and performance indicators have long been utilized in measuring outcomes and results for companies within a variety of situations. Within fleet and company safety programs, choosing the metrics for the benchmarking process is the framework and foundation for effectively evaluating all activities related to fleet safety and the outcomes of a safety program. Safety should be recognized as the priority within a company. Accident statistics have long been analyzed to improve safety programs within fleets. Companies use these types of results in addition to accident reporting techniques to appraise overall safety performance standards and to decide whether to further streamline and improve safety measures. Accident statistics are recorded within many different industry segments such as the Federal Transit Administration, the American Trucking Associations, the American Public Transportation Association, and the American School Bus Council. These are just a few examples of reference utilized by many companies to successfully conduct systems of accident reporting. Procedures Each fleet has different reporting features that are continuously analyzed by safety managers and leadership within the company. Depending on the size of the fleet, management will begin with the proper training on vehicle operations in alignment with driver expectations and qualifications. Communication is the key to achieving an understanding of safety procedures. The results of proper and improper vehicle operations are


Benchmarking Principles and Safety Initiatives


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recorded while a company thoroughly investigates all accidents. If a fleet is large enough, a company will decentralize its investigative techniques by ensuring multiple locations are available to reach all areas of support for the fleet. In this manner, a company could potentially have more of an advantage if an accident were to occur, as management would be closer to the location to review the incident and provide detailed information in a timelier manner. If a fleet is small enough, the company will provide a more centralized response because of the small amount of fleet vehicles that could potentially be involved. A more centralized system provides responses to accidents from a single main office as opposed to multiple offices located in multiple locations. The individual responsible for conducting benchmarking with the goal of determining not only safe practices but also accident prevention must determine the types of reported incidents to be recorded for use by the company. Objectively, those inside and outside of a company could influence the types of accidents recorded as it is important to the company in many ways to reflect a good, clean driving record for all fleet drivers. How the incident is recorded can also be impacted by who is responsible for the accident. Whatever benchmark is set for recording an incident, it is critical for a safety manager to properly record accidents and utilize this information to provide thorough training for his or her drivers to prevent future on-the-job accidents. Accident Record-Keeping Systems Design and development of record-keeping systems can help assist a company in many ways. There can be many different types of accidents in many different locations, all of which can be recorded by hand through the utilization of information technology and determined by metrics outlined for record. The first step that a company must take to create a successful accident record-keeping system is to choose the data elements that are to be recorded. These elements can be the metrics that have the largest impact on the company’s safety record. These types of elements demonstrate the major parts of an accident such as who was at fault, what vehicles were used, why the accident occurred, and where the accident occurred. Another stop would be to gather a comprehensive list of additional elements that were involved in the accident. The focus should be primarily on capturing all information regarding the accident, such as whether it involved two, three, or more vehicles; if there were any injuries and fatalities; as well as which vehicle had the most damage to it and why. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, n.d.), employers who have more than 10 employees must keep a comprehensive record of all incidents that happen within the company. This includes any accidents within its fleets. The record of each incident must be kept on file for at least 5 years per OSHA regulations. Companies can use the following OSHA regulations as guidelines for creating accident record-keeping systems:

 recording any job-related fatality, including incidents involving fleet vehicles;

 recording any on-the-job injury that results in loss of consciousness or days off from work;

 recording any job-related or on-the-job injuries that require major medical treatment;

 recording any employee diagnosis that is a direct result of a work-related accident; and

 recording any special criteria that involves work-related injury cases (OSHA, n.d.). The most accurate benchmark that can be utilized by safety managers and senior management within a company is a careful analysis of past accidents that occurred on the job and implementation of improvements to facilitate a safer environment for future fleet drivers. Reviewing incidents outside of a company can be beneficial but not as important as reviewing those that happen within the company. Internal reports based on statistical information from past incidents demonstrate ongoing accident trends and help safety managers reduce the risk of future work-related accidents. Incentive Programs for Safety A primary target for employers is to promote safety throughout their company environment. In order to facilitate effectiveness, employers need to keep employees interested. Given this, many companies now use incentive programs to promote safety both with on-the-job worksites and within the fleets. The positive results of incentive programs have been researched and linked to what is called the Hawthorne effect. The Hawthorne effect was established after a study was conducted between 1927 and 1932 involving the possible connection between the worksite environment and productivity. The result of the study demonstrated that while there was no established connection between a worksite environment and the productivity that resulted

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from it, it was demonstrated that productivity is a direct result of the employee’s perception. The employees involved in the study explained how they felt more connected to their company because now they felt more involved; therefore, productivity went up (Hindle, 2008).

Companies have developed reward programs specifically to reward drivers for safe driving habits such as keeping a clean driving record and avoiding accidents. By rewarding drivers for safe behavior, companies are building a culture of safety (Vergara, 2009). Employees often need incentives to raise their levels of productivity and align themselves with their company’s goals and objectives. While companies want to reduce accident statistics, there is also a need to increase communications with employees to ensure this takes place. These types of communications will help employees better understand safety program parameters. For example, how would the program be coordinated and implemented? What is the period in which employees can receive awards? What types of safety procedures do employees need to follow while operating fleet vehicles? How will drivers qualify for these safety awards? Recently there has been an increase in the number of companies using driver incentive programs as a part of accident-reduction efforts. Companies are encouraging fleets to increase communications with safety managers, take part in new training initiatives, and employ these new safety methods while on the job. Safety managers need to be sure to enforce their rules and safety regulations. Employees want to see incentives that benefit them. Compliance is the primary goal as a company needs to demonstrate an effective safety culture. Employees will most likely not be compliant in their operations of fleet vehicles if they do not see results. For example, many companies use safety incentive goals within the fleets, allowing employees a significant quarterly bonus based on their safety record. Employees also want to see that if they are held accountable that the employer is also held accountable. If the company delivers training on new safety initiatives and the driver utilizes those initiatives daily within fleet operations, he or she wants to see the results of that work from the employer and not just hear the employer talk about what was done. Conclusion From benchmarking, effective metrics need to be established, and statistical analysis should take place involving this data to determine new and improved methods that can be used by companies to reduce future on-the-job accidents. Companies can determine what data should be gathered to successfully report while also using the information to create a safety program that works for the fleet. In developing an individualized accident reporting system, the company can take past data and employ it in the current safety programs to

Safety First Puzzle Piece (Miles, 2013)

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improve training and hopefully mitigate future incidents. Safe driving recognition and incentive programs reinforce good driving performance (Vergara, 2009). Fleet performance should be determined through effective and efficient benchmarking practices and should demonstrate not only accountability for past accidents but responsibility in preventing future ones.

References Hindle, T. (2008, November 3). The Hawthorne effect. The Economist. Retrieved from

http://www.economist.com/node/12510632 Miles, S. (2013). Safety first puzzle shows caution protection and hazards [Image]. Retrieved from

http://www.freedigitalphotos.net/images/safety-first-puzzle-shows-caution-protection-and-hazards- photo-p213896

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (n.d.). Recordkeeping requirements. Retrieved from

https://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/ Vergara, L. (2009). How to develop a fleet safety award program. Retrieved from http://www.automotive-


Learning Activities (Non-Graded) Non-Graded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Click the link below to learn more about how the Safety Measurement System (SMS) is used as a benchmarking tool in assessing fleet safety performance. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. (2016, December). Safety

Measurement System (SMS) methodology: Behavior analysis and safety improvement category (BASIC) prioritization status. Retrieved from https://csa.fmcsa.dot.gov/Documents/SMSMethodology.pdf

What are the benefits of using these types of tools? How can these tools be successfully implemented within a fleet management program to ensure safety?


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