HISTOGRAPHY OF PRESIDENT EISENHOWER
This research study on the presidency of Eisenhower has a number of sections. Each section has a sub-topic, which gives a detailed information about such topic. It covers the people’s perception about the presidency of Eisenhower. It does this by highlighting some of events, which took place during his presidency and the methods he deployed during such times. The research study also covers a short bibliography of Eisenhower from his date of birth to after his presidential period. The main events covered in this research study include How the perception of Eisenhower’s presidency has changed over the years? Examples of how Eisenhower’s actions during the 1957 Little Rock School Crisis have changed. These factors will help one to understand how he ran his government and the reasons behind the actions he took, whether they were justified or not justified. Over the years, the perception of historians and other critics on Eisenhower’s presidency have softened. This research study aims at uncovering the reasons behind such changes in the perception of people on his presidency. In order to achieve this, the research study will investigate some of the reasons behind the president’s move when it came to certain issues.
Born on 14 October 1890 in Denison, Texas, Eisenhower moved to Kansa when he was still a teenager to look for greener pastures and improved living conditions in this new area. This implies that he was born from a poor ground, which could not provide his basic needs such as education among other needs. Eisenhower spent his teenage years as a worker in order to earn himself upkeep money and for other secondary needs. He attended local primary schools mostly attended by children from poor financial backgrounds. In 1909, he graduated from high school and later joined the US military where his dedication to serve his country led to a number of promotions of the young and new service man. Even as a military man, he never abandoned his academic quest as continued his studies in the military college. He also attended the army war college after he was promoted to a lieutenant while still serving in the US military.
He had five brothers, one son, and one wife who was a serious religious woman. After his graduation from the school as lieutenant, he was assigned as a training instructor during the 1st world war. In 1935, he went to Philippines serving in various military positions before the start of the 2nd world war. After the second world war, he resigned from all his military positions and was later appointed as the first president of Columbia university. He was later appointed as the supreme commander of NATO by Truman.
During the elections, he was chosen to run on the republican ticket, Richard Nixon was his preferred candidate for the position of the vice president in his administration. They conducted a vigorous campaign, which saw them win the top political job in the US. He managed a total of 55% popular vote and 442 of the total electoral votes cast during this election. Such a good performance led to his victory hence he became the president of the united states of America.
David Eisenhower is one of the least understood head of states among the modern presidents since he has been rated as the worst performing president by a number of critics and historians. He rose to popularity during the 2nd world war when his effort was felt not only by the people of America but also by the whole world. A hidden record by historians reveal that Eisenhower was voted as the worst president ever witnessed by the world. He was ranked as a president serving in the 18th century with uncouth leadership styles. However despite this negative publicity, his reputation took another turn with historians taking different stands concerning his administration and mode of leadership. Historians and other literature scholars started the new reputation campaign, which made people take a new stand when it came to the leadership of David Eisenhower. This can be attributed to the fact that these historians had access to the classified records and information used during the administration of David. These records made them to understand the reasons behind the actions taken by David during his administration as the president of the united states of America.
The record revealed that David Eisenhower was one the most brilliant leaders the world has ever seen with unique leadership styles, which is hard for the new leaders to emulate and copy since they complex. The records also reveal that he was a skilled political operator who had a hand in all the decisions made by all branches of his administrations. These records reveal that David had a say in almost all the sectors in his administration some, which people would think were the works of the subordinate staff of the administration. This is unique since most presidents only want to identify themselves with matters of national interest only and not everything that goes on in their administrations. This makes David better than most presidents since he takes responsibility of all the actions taking place in his administration. He however left issues of a controversial nature to his subordinate staff to delegate and make decisions on such matters. This move was a great blow and at the same time savior to his reputation among the people of America. Historians view this move a well calculated move, which can damage the reputation of someone if not handled carefully. For instance, this move means that the president will save himself from any scandals but at the same time he will be viewed by the people as a weak president who cannot solve matters affecting his administration. This can greatly damage the reputation of a highly valued individual such as a president of a nation. With this move, David was considered as a weak political and leadership figure in the west region.
Eisenhower and the Little Rock Crisis
This has been the worst scenario ever witnessed in the history of America. It was the worst form of racism witnessed in a free country especially the united states of America. Military troops stormed little rock academy where students were blocked from accessing classroom based on their race. During this year, governor Orval ordered the national guard to stop the African American students from accessing the school since the school was only meant for the whites living in America and not African Americans who he considered inferior and poor.
This act went against the 1954 supreme court decision, which made segregation in schools based on skin color illegal in the united states of America and especially in Arkansas. This implies that a junior officer in the administration of David defied a court decision hence he did have respect for the law. He also slowed the decision to desegregate public schools based on any form of discrimination. Since, president David had a hand in all decisions made in his administration, this may imply that he had no respect for the constitution of America and to a court order for an officer in his administration defied a court order.
During this time, the president was presented with a difficult situation since he had to delegate and give his orders concerning this scandal. He had to make a decision, which aimed at stopping a possible blood bath, which may have taken place in this county. The tension level in this county rose at an alarming rate with confrontations between whites and blacks witnessed in this region.
As the president, David made arrangements to meet the governor of the affected county with the aim of solving the rising matter. They agreed that black American students could be enrolled in the national public schools. The guards were removed from the affected schools. However on 9 that month when nine black American students went to enroll in the schools a full riot erupted. Without the intervention of the governor, this situation became worse as it ran out of hand. Even at this rate the governor still ignored the damages made because of the situation. After a certain time, the mayor made a direct appeal to the president to provide help for the worsening situation occurring in this county.
At this time, the president had no option but to take a bold action in ensuring the security in this county was back to normal and the rule of the law upheld without any hindrance. The president placed the national guard under the federal supervision with the a competitive security force deployed to contain the situation. This tactic worked for law and order was restored in this county and the enrollment of black Americans student in the public schools taking smooth softly. Despite the successful president’s intervention, he was still highly criticized and blamed for all the events, which took place in this school.he was criticized by people who thought he had done too little to maintain law and order and contain the situation. These people believed that the president in the past times had done little to ensure that racism did not take place in the US, they also believed that the president did less to ensure the rights of the black American students were protected at all times and no mistreatment was to occur. Others felt that the president had imposed the federal rule on the people to a depression and insecure stage. They implied that such matters should be left to the local authorities without the interference of the federal government. Such persons thought the president had acted inappropriately hence soiling his reputation when it came to matters of the national security. After the enrollment of the nine students in this school. The president ordered that some federal agent to remain in the school in order to maintain the law and order and uphold the constitutional requirement of the free state. After this action, the security of this school was back to normal state and all the operations went as planned without any form of interruption.
Eisenhower leadership style
This was one of the unique leaders ever to exist in the world with oblique leadership styles. David deployed the use of a behind the scenes president who a hand in all the matters affecting his country. This made difficult for one to differentiate on whose authority most of the junior staff members were operating on since the president was known to be involved in almost all matters affecting the US. This form of leadership did work for him since his desire was not the day to day success but rather on a deeply trusted national figure creation of himself on the leadership scale around the world. This ensured that nothing took place behind his back since he monitored all the vital department in his administration. Such a move elevated the enactment of his policies into use in the US during his service term in office. It also ensured that no act of betrayal took place in his administration since he was at all times aware of the happenings in his administration unit.
This form of administration and monitoring all the relevant events in ones’ administration can also work in the modern setting if embraced by any president. However most of the modern leaders or president cares so much about daily success than in creating a legacy to remember even long after their presidency by generations to come. Most of the leaders in the today’s setting only care about their current reputation and other personal conquest, this makes it hard for them to embrace David’s mode of leadership. This also makes it for David’s policies and mode of leadership to be common in the current worldwide leadership setting.
ORGANIZATION OF THE PRESIDENCY
When comparing the organization of the presidents who had served in the white house before, it is evident that none of them had the same organizational experience, which David Eisenhower had acquired in his previous service positions. This made a potential and a better leader than all the candidates who vied for the same position. It also implied that he had David would govern the united states of America in a more mature manner than any other candidate in the race for the presidency of the US during that particular election.
His mode of leadership made arrangements of frequent meetings between the head of different national bodies in the effort to flush out policies, which led to regular clashes among such bodies. This a well calculated move, which helped the president to manage and avoid internal administration wrangles in his administration. The meetings were held weekly and all the heads of the relevant bodies had to attend. This mode of leadership minimized the number of internal wrangles, which may have occurred due to clash of different policies by different national bodies.
Most leaders in the current worldwide leadership scale are ignorant of the policies deployed by different national organization. This may lead to occasional clashes between different parastatals and other government organization. This means that most of the world’s current leaders do not have good leadership skills as David had during his reign nas the president of the united states of America. It also changes the perception people held concerning the leadership of David as the worst ever government to exist in the US. This means that David had the interests of any American who would affected by the possible internal wrangles in his administration.
David Eisenhower before even ascending to power had already gained popularity among the people. This was because of the role the played during the world war two, which increased his popularity among the citizens of America and even in foreign countries. This made him to have less interest in public appeal as he concentrated in his office work. This lack of proper public relation during his administration also fuelled the negative public view of his administration. The people thought the president did not have their interests at heart since they never consulted with them before taking certain sensitive actions. A sensitive leader ought to relate with his people and know their feeling about a certain issue before taking any action, which may affect the people negatively.
David also had a mode of leadership style, which can be described as hidden-hand leadership. This kind of leadership style reduced the number of his public appearance and interaction since he mainly concentrated on the behind the scenes management tactics during his leadership. This negatively affected the public’s perception on this administration and especially on the president’s image since he is viewed as a significant figure in any political leadership setting.
Such a move can be dangerous to one’s leadership since it the views of the people that matter to any government. The people’s feedback on any administration can either motivate such an administration or lower their work morale depending on the nature of the feedback. Positive feedback motivates people while negative feedback reduces the morale of any individual since they will like they are not making the desired impact of his or her actions. This may have affected the service delivery to the people by this government.
Historians believe that David had secret agents deployed among the people who sought their opinions concerning matters affecting the US people and the government.this helped in incorporating the people’s needs when making certain decisions. Such a case can be witnessed during the Little Rock Crisis, when the president had no option but to take a bold action in ensuring the security in this county was back to normal and the rule of the law upheld without any hindrance. The president placed the national guard under the federal supervision with the a competitive security force deployed to contain the situation. This tactic worked for law and order was restored in this county and the enrollment of black Americans student in the public schools taking smooth softly. This action despite taking too long before intervening is an indication that the president had the interests of people at heart at all times. This action made the people believe that the president despite his poor public relations, still had their interests at heart.
Leaders in the modern setting can also embrace this leadership style but never forget to deploy agents who will during time to time give an account of the people’s interests during the situation, which needed to be acted upon swiftly. This will help such leaders gain the trust of the people since despite the poor public relations the president still has the people’s interests at heart. Such leaders or presidents will have a positive public reputation, which is vital in the political field since the public’s opinion is what matters most in the game.
The leadership style of David Eisenhower was based on policies-driven issues and personal feelings or conquest as witnessed in many leadership trends in the modern setting. He only had the aim of reaching the peak of leadership principles. No other leader in world leadership records followed his policies while making any decision or undertaking any task during his administration.
This played a vital role when it came to matters of war and intervention. David relied on his leadership and administration policies when making such decisions. For instance, in Indochina during the Dien Bien Phu crisis, the president used the calculation of his policy analysis to in order to decide on whether to intervene and the best form of intervention he should order the relevant authority to take during that situation.
The following of policies strictly when it comes to making decisions about matters of national interest is important and vital. However, this move/action ought to carried out swiftly since any delays may lead to damages, which have been prevented. Leaders should also be flexible since there are issues, which requires one to bend his or her policies especially matters of national interests requires with flexibility. For instance, in a situation where taking a swift action, which calls for one to bend his or her policies for the sake of saving innocent lives is well calculated move. This calls for leaders to be flexible whenever carrying out their administrative activities while focusing on the policies at the same time.
Despite his poor family background, David rose to be one of the few intellects in the US during his reign as the president. He had formidable intellectual strengths he acquired during his education and work times. His writing skills were commendable and was mainly witnessed during the press conference in Syntax. He had drafted a well calculated speech, which maturely tackled the issues under discussion during that press conference.
He, however, was not good in oratory as some his aides were in the same field. This implied that he mostly left the part of addressing journalist to his subordinate unless it was an issue, which only requires the president to address. He however gave an outline of the best mode of handling such situations. This made sure that no matter, which required the making of a decision had his opinion taken care of in such decisions.
In most cases his contribution during decision making processes led to the realization of positive results. This can be attributed the fact that most of his subordinate respected him due to his sound judgement. The also envied how he handled matters of national security interests without showing any fear or doubt on his actions. Most leaders in the modern society rely on the services of their subordinates when coming up with his or her speech for a press function or any occasion of national interests. This implies that David was far much better than most leaders in the modern setting. It is also a challenge to all leaders to embrace writing their own speech since that is the only way of showing their true opinion and decision on an issue affecting his or her people.
When relying on the services of the subordinate staff, leaders or presidents under exploit their intellectual and creative skills in writing when it comes to handling matters of national interest and importance to the people. Some vital information, which play a vital role when the president leaves the handling of speech entirely to the subordinate staff since the staff or staff members ay leave out matters, which may have been of great importance to the people.
Leaders if not taking part fully in coming up with their speeches ought to revise the speeches before holding the press conferences. This move will provide them with an opportunity to over the speeches and make the relevant corrections or additions. This will ensure that each speech serves the intended purpose effectively. It is also an indication that leaders ought to take up all their responsibilities with the seriousness and keenness they deserve. This action will help in avoiding or solving unnecessary occurrences, which may taint the image of the administration and that of the president.
Historians describe David’s temper as one, which would stir up a summer thunderstorm. This implies that he had a really short temper, which was disastrous to his leadership, his administration, and the people of America as whole. However, he had one advantage since his temper did not last for long since it subsided very fast. This lowered the risk or damages, which may have resulted from such decisions since he came back to his sense in a short time rectifying any mistake he might have committed due to accelerated anger. This made better than other previous presidents of the united States of America such as Richard Nixon whose anger and suspicion led to taking action, which doomed his leadership. Another president who performed worse than David was Bill Clinton who had no self control. This placed his leadership in trouble often hence the people lost trust and hope in his leadership.
His mode of handling his anger and making fast correction whenever he made a mistake may have been because of his pre-presidency experience. The leadership skills he acquired fro holding this sensitive position aided him in controlling his anger since he had in past occasions handled even more sensitive issue, which required a sober judgement. This implies that he handled matters of national interests with a sober mind.
Leaders ought to have a sober mind at all times when involved in any issue of national interest since their decision or action will affect the lives of many people. Their action or decision may affect these people either positively or negatively. If these actions affect the lives of the people positively, his reputation gained praise among the public and vice versa.
After his presidency, David Eisenhower moved to Pennsylvania where he wrote his autobiography. He later died in the year 1969 due to a congestive heart. During this time, David Eisenhower is one of the least understood head of states among the modern presidents since he was rated as the worst performing president by a number of critics and historians. People during this time viewed his mode of leadership as barbaric and uncouth due to the following reasons; he had less interest in public appeal as he concentrated in his office work. This lack of proper public relation during his administration also fuelled the negative public view of his administration. The people thought the president did not have their interests at heart since they never consulted with them before taking certain sensitive actions. He also had a short temper, which was disastrous to his leadership, his administration, and the people of America as whole. Since he was the president he had the mandate to carry out vital decision making processes. In order to avoid failures such as the ones experienced by his predecessors such as Richard Nixon whose anger and suspicion led to taking action, which doomed his leadership.another president who performed worse than David was Bill Clinton who had no self control. This placed his leadership in trouble often hence the people lost trust and hope in his leadership.
From the discussion and the findings, David’s leadership can be evaluated as follows; Leaders ought to have a sober mind at all times when involved in any issue of national interest since their decision or action will affect the lives of many people. Their action or decision may affect these people either positively or negatively. If these actions affect the lives of the people positively, his reputation gained praise among the public and vice versa. Leaders in the modern setting can also embrace The behind the scenes style of leadership but never forget to deploy agents who will during time to time give an account of the people’s interests during the situation, which needed to be acted upon swiftly. This will help such leaders gain the trust of the people since despite the poor public relations the president still has the people’s interests at heart.
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