History and Political Science
Realism is a theory of political philosophy that explains international relations in terms of power by believing that politics is governed by objective laws whose roots are in human nature.
One of the Morgenthau’s Principles of political realism states that it is probable to come up with a theory reflecting objective laws and distinguishing between truth and opinion because objective laws whose roots are in human nature govern society. Second principle of realism is the notion interest is defined in terms of power, which sets politics apart by instilling coherent order into politics’ subject matter hence enabling theoretical understanding of politics. The bthird principle of realism is that interest is defined, as power is an objective group that is generally legitimate although it can change its meaning. The fourth is the knowledge of both moral principles of political action and the tension between moral commands and the requirements of successful political action. Additionally, the fifth principle of realism affirms that moral laws governing the world are different from morals of any nation. Finally, the last principle of realism asserts that there is real distinction between political realism other realisms.
The idea of Power is broadly defined and there is no distinction between resources giving state power such as military and the action of one country exercising power over another. It is something that makes someone have authority over the other due to social differences such as violence and psychological ties.
Neo-realism ignores classical realism concept to explain international politics but develop a theory that favors structural constraints over agent’s strategies and motivation. It highlights that international disorder is the main cause of disturbance in global politics.
Kant’s three “definitive articles” that define what is essential for perpetual peace are ;
-Each state has to have a republican constitution
-The Law of Nations shall be founded on Federation of Free States
Liberal democracies do not go to war against each other because they feel that war is costly and there are no aggressors. However, liberal democracies go to war against nonliberal states so that the big democracies can consolidate power by invoking nationalist rhetoric and stirring up regional hatred.
The instrumental Marxist theory covers the economic structure due to the feeling that the economy determines everything and promotes the high class.
Structural Marxist dwells in the thought that law can be changed by other means and it gives hope to the lower class families that they can improve their status regardless of their current social and economic status.
Role of state in Marxist theory is maintenance of the necessary general conditions for the reproduction of the wage labor/capital relation which is the heart of bourgeois societies.
Marxist theory differs with idealist and realist theory because it provides a framework of analyzing society and acts as the end goal for all thoughts. It also offers practical solution to social and political problems
Theotonio Dos Santos defines dependence as a past circumstance that shapes particular structure of the world economy such that it favors some countries in disadvantage of others and restricts the growth prospect of the minor economics.
Factors that limited interstate violence according to Waltz are economic interdependence, democratic peace theory, rise of international institutions such as NATO, and the US unipolar moment. Waltz believes that a country cannot just go to war with a nation that does not pose any threat to it. The second reason why countries cannot go to war is economic interdependency when one state enjoys economic monopoly and the other state depends on it. additionally, the rise of international institutions that serve the interest of most powerful nations and the unipolar moment enjoyed by US thus reducing misuse of weapons
NGO is any kind of private organization that is independent from government control provided it is not-profit, non-criminal and not simply an opposition political party. Anderson and Glasius’ view regarding NGOs are realistic.
The realist, idealist, and Marxist theories help NGOs in understanding foreign policies of various states that they want to work. There are aspects of international relations, economics, international laws, and social work that are also studied.
Complex interdependence is the thought put jointly that states and their fortunes are put together
Complex interdependence is caused by absence of hierarchy among issues, increased use of matiple channels of communication among states and declining supremacy of the military.
Kehoane and Nye postulates that asymmetry in interdependence provides bargaining power in politics.
Complex interdependace promotes peace and interrelationship among countries.
Rosenau’s two world politics are along the domestic frontier and the distant proximities.
Is a label used for diverse claims that globalization has decisively undermined the nation-state as a container and regulator of economic, cultural, and political affairs.
The tradition of IR is most closely affiliated to be neo-liberal.
According to skeptics of hyper globalist, the effect of patterns of inequality and hierarchy in the world economy with respect to cultural homogenizations is that regional trading blocs are getting better.
HRBA and Appiah’s call for “cosmopolitanism” to WGS reading 50 discussions of the views of hyper globalists and the skeptics of hyper globalism are all based on consideration of human rights and the need to respect everyone’s right. All approaches appreciate the diversity of the human culture and peaceful coexistence.