History and Political Science, North Atlantic Treaty Organization

History and Political Science, North Atlantic Treaty Organization



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North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed on 4 April 1949 as an alliance to stand against the Soviet Union who were strong in number and therefore could only be fought by the Western. According to the agreement, if a non-NATO country would attack any of the member countries all the NATO members would get involved in the war to stop the threat. NATO is led by the United States and is comprised of most of the western European nations as well as Canada who came together as a defensive alliance to fight probable Soviet aggression. It is apparent that NATO was initially formed to counter the communist East and the member countries agreed a mutual defense in response to any form of external attack thus making it a foundation stone for larger pan-European security architecture. Currently, NATO plays vital role in consolidating democracy and stability in Europe by enforcing peace and acting as a coherent international response. NATO has changed their mission which is extension of peace through strategic projection of security.

The European Union was formed to foster political and economic integration of European countries meaning that its dynamism and success spring from its involvement in economics. It was meant to create a united European market to facilitate trade and to expand the economy and this has extended the creation of the Euro and the European central bank. The main intention of the Euro was to come up with a currency that rivals the dollar. The European Union was created for economic reasons and the member countries are required to follow certain rules that unite their markets. Currently, it promotes human rights and equality both internally and globally as well as promoting transparency and democracy amongst its institutions.

The difference between the Sunni Muslims who are the minority and the Shiite Muslim who are he Muslim majority has never been settled particularly the atrocity directed towards the Shiite and the Kurdish. The religious and ethnic diversity in Iraq poses a great challenge to her democracy. Seventy five percent of Iraqi population is Arabs while 25% Kurd who want to establish an Islamic state like the one in Iran. Moreover, the Shiites tend to support a secular state while the Sunnis who are interested in reestablishing Baath Party rule. It is obvious that there is a deep seated dispute and ideological differences amongst the different groups. The bordering countries are also largely influencing the country’s ability to achieve democracy such as Iran that has sent Shiite agents in Iraq to promote development of an Islamic state and Syria that is thought to be supporting terrorist organizations.

Iraq should adopt laws and constitution that separates the government and the religious groups. There need to be a governing institution that respects and creates stable security environment, a constitution with a bill of rights, and an independent judiciary. Moreover, there should be a great focus on the significance of consultation in the administrative issues. All the ethnic and religious groups need to be consulted and consensus developed in governance issues while the rulers operate within some kind of law.

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