Student Assessment Cover Sheet
Course: DIPLOMA OF BUSINESS
Unit Title: MANAGE WORKFORCE PLANNING
Student Name: _______________________________
Student Number: _______________________________
PART A – REVIEW QUESTIONS
PART B – CASE STUDY
PART C – PROJECT
PART A – REVIEW
Question 1 –TERMINOLOGY
Research the following TERMS and PHRASES these are linked with your assessment. Attach your definition or explanation to each word. Please remember to Reference.
scenario planning is a business management concept that provides leaders with a better understanding of the world and the macro drivers of change that are at work, which assist leaders to achieve better decision making at the operational level (Kahane,2012).
This is a human resource management concept that provides information regarding the current workforce across mission critical occupations, including demographic and background characteristics of the current workforce, retirement eligibility, turnover, and various workforce management issues (Rothwell & Kazana, 2003).
It is a concept in marketing principles which is used as a tool by companies to track the environment in they are operating in or are planning to launch a new product or service (Henry, 2011).
A SWOT analysis consists of evaluating a firm’s internal strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats. It is a valuable strategic planning tool, because it focuses on the key elements of a firm’s position within a market (Pahl & University of Applied Science Berlin. 2007).
Workforce planning (WP)
This is a core process of human resource management strategy which ensures the right numbers of people with the right skills are in the right place at the right time to deliver short- and long-term organisational objectives (Bechet, 2008).
It is an aspect of technical analysis that attempts to predict the future movement of a stock based on past data (Kim, Fiore & Kim, 2011).
Porters Five Forces Model
It is a model which identifies and analyses 5 competitive forces that shape every industry, and helps determine an industry’s weaknesses and strengths (Hill & Jones, 2010).
The Delphi Technique
A forecasting method based on the results of questionnaires sent to a panel of experts who are not necessarily physically brought face to face (Sims, 2002).
The Nominal group Technique
This is a decision making approach in which constitute is a structured method for group brainstorming that encourages contributions from everyone (Borkowski, 2011).
This is a statistical and operation research techniques that are used in the decision making process in the business industry (Lucey,2003).
It is a research technique that uses observation as the data collection method. This include the selection and recording of behaviours of people in their environment which is useful for generation of in-depth descriptions of organizations or events, for obtaining information that is otherwise inaccessible, and for conducting research when other methods are inadequate(Tolley, Ulin, & Robinson, 2013).
It is a set of policies and practices that seek to include people within a workforce who are considered to be, in some way, different from those in the prevailing constituency (Lesca, 2011).
This is a method that enables decision makers both to understand the external environment and the interconnections of its various sectors and to translate this understanding into the organization’s planning and decision making processes (Abrams, 2003).
This is a formal set of goals and strategies of achieving them as laid down by the organization. It also includes the background information of the organization, workers culture and their collective objective.
This is the characteristic statistic of a portion of the population for instance consumers (Murdock,2006).
This is an individual effort towards achieving specified predetermined goals in any social organization (Jackson, et al.1992).
Assess supply and demand
What are the basic steps in workforce analysis
– Context and Environment
– Current Workforce Profile
– Future Workforce Profile
– Gap Analysis and Closing Strategies
– Conclusion, review, evaluation strategy and next steps
Identify where we can locate sources of external labour, demographic and economic data within Australia
Australian Bureau of Statistics is Australia’s official statistical organisation. It offers a range of resources dedicated to assisting small businesses with market research, profiling customers and a range of other issues (Murdock,2006).
As any HR manager is aware situations arise that cause concern, we must behave in a pro active way (Plan B) Research six online employment sites.
-The specialist employment websites include travel agent, doctor, under 18 staff, wine specialist, Japanese speaking tour guide, Webrecruit.
Apart from recruitment websites , name four other methods of sourcing skilled labour describe the advantages and disadvantages for each
-Training existing staff; it is a valuable strategy in which to training existing staff to meet future needs and succession plans is carried out. It has the advantage of working with familiar persons who have mastered the organization culture. It prevents the firm from selecting new skills that may be more competent.
– Recruiting; it brings new blood into the organization but has the disadvantage of financial burden in logistics.
– Advertising; it has the advantage of offering a competitive selection process that attracts the best candidates. However, it is demanding in terms of financial input for the advertising firms and media.
– Outsourcing; it relieves the organization from carrying out the process itself hence concentrating in production activities. The greatest disadvantage is that it promotes anonymity that may attract people testing waters and may disappoint by failing to report after being selected.
Develop workforce objectives and strategies and Implement initiatives
How can an organisation address high staff turnovers, what tools are required to monitor the issue and how can we evaluate and act on the feedback?
The rate of staff turnover can be regulated by setting a minimum contract period that will ensure the workers stay and deliver to firm as agreed. It is also important to assess factors explaining the increasing rate of turnover like working conditions among others and seek resolution (Bechet, 2008). This can be achieved through using a structured questionnaire to be filled by the staff and the feedback collected for administrative evaluation and better decisions towards the same.
What are the benefits to a well designed rewards program in an organisation, how will this retain staff?
It considers the overall social environment in which the employees originate. It is consistent with the work done and equal among people who have done same magnitude and nature irrespective of gender, race among others. The program must be structured in a way that all the employees are eligible and on level ground to give their best (Bechet, 2008). It must not necessarily in monetary form but even in kind. All these factors motivate employees and impart confidence and a sense of belonging hence giving their best to the organization.
Identify the benefits of communicating WP information and objectives to the organisations` stakeholders.
Information to the stakeholders creates awareness on the various issues taking place in the organization. It evokes the spirit of enquiry and sound decision making by the stakeholders as far as the management and performance of the organization is concerned (Bechet, 2008). It also promotes participatory decision making for a better performance of the organization.
To support workforce planning objectives
Develop and implement a strategy management plan to assist your workforce to deal with change in the organisation.
The workers are encouraged to take further and advanced training in diverse fields with emphasis on periodic updates on the changing job market environment. Organizing seminars and in-service training sessions with workers will keep the workers current on the dynamic management demand within the company (Rothwell & Kazana, 2003). It would also be important to promote mentorship programs to deal with social challenges affecting workers.
Identify key strategies implemented in a succession plan process, to be used in your organisation to ensure desirable workers are recognised, developed and retained.
Appraisal program need to be set up that includes semi-annual performance data capture. This can be measured alongside the academic background, competitive decision making in critical situations and team player (Rothwell & Kazana, 2003). It is also important to promote internal recruitment of persons who have mastered organization culture and sound creative and critical managerial skills. The outstanding workers should be offered more opportunities and assigned more responsibilities to strengthen their potential.
Monitor and evaluate workforce trends
How can we monitor labour supply trends in areas of over or under supply in the external environment? Name two sources of LMI.(Labour Market Information)
It is possible to monitor labour supply through doing some research into various career sectors and to keep updated on trends in the aggregate graduate labour market (International Labour Office, 2006). Such labour market information can be obtained from; Primary LMI sources of information include censuses and surveys. Secondary LMI sources are institutions or organizations that produce statistics on the labour market trend.
Design a survey to assess the organisational climate within the staff work environment to determine satisfaction levels by asking 10 questions
Survey Question Response
What is your relationship with the management? How do you relate with co-workers? How do you rate the commitment of the organization in terms of your safety? What is your take on the organization’s performance? Do you like team work? Are you contented with your current salary? Are you satisfied with the work policies of the organization? Do you think there is enough time after work to take up additional classes? Are you satisfied with the organization work culture? Do you think you are doing what you like in your assigned department? How as the HR department can we stay updated with changes to global trends and changes?
The effect of globalization compels firms to adopt frequent workforce training and performance evaluation. This will help in improving their overall performance and have them updated on the socio-economic dynamics that is emerging in their workplace and job market (Rothwell & Kazana, 2003).
How in the workplace can HR department evaluate and monitor changes that have been implemented within the organisation?
The HR department have the authority and sufficient administrative resources to evaluate and monitor the changes being implemented in the company (Rothwell & Kazana, 2003). One critical aspect of this duty is through measuring the efficiency of the individual workers in terms of their contribution on the overall output and performance of the firm. Setting standards for performance and goals to be attained after a specified period of time will give a true picture of what is expected.
PART B CASE STUDY
Read the following case study on Workforce Planning. Answer the following questions.Ensure you reference all of your information
Case Study Workforce planning in practice at NHS (National Health Service) London
In September 2008, NHS London published Workforce for London: A Strategic Framework, outlining the way in which the organisation was to address a number of key challenges facing healthcare in the capital over the coming decade. These include a rapidly growing population (predicted to equate to 600,000 additional users of health services over the next ten years) and highly-variable quality of healthcare provision, resulting in the highest rates of ‘consumer’ dissatisfaction in England. These challenges along with a stated strategic objective to provide world-class healthcare for every Londoner have significant implications for the size, shape and distribution of London’s healthcare workforce.
The current workforce
London’s complex healthcare system has the highest number of constituent NHS organisations in the UK, and employs over 205,000 staff, 15.4% of the total NHS workforce. It has some of the world’s leading medical centres of excellence which form a national and international hub for innovation in clinical care, research, and education. However, the report also outlines a number of key staffing issues faced by NHS London, including:
In London hospitals, the ratio of clinical staff to occupied beds varies from 0.9 to over 2.0
The lowest staffing levels are often in the areas with the greatest need – more GPs are in the south and west of London than in the more deprived east and north
London has more doctors (30.8 doctors per 10,000 population compared to an England average of 21.2) but fewer nurses (62.5 nurses per 10,000 population against an England average of 67.5) when compared with the rest of England.
As a result of historic recruitment patterns and more staff delaying retirement there are now a higher proportion of older staff in the workforce than ever before.
Healthcare has always attracted a large proportion of female workers, and there continue to be growing numbers of women in the medical workforce. It is anticipated that the working hours per week in the medical workforce will reduce over the next ten years reflecting a greater demand for flexible working arrangements by both men and women and the need for compliance with European Working Time Directive by 2009, which imposes a maximum of 48 working hours per week. Advances in technology will also have a significant impact on the shape of London’s workforce through the creation of more centres with the technology and expertise to deliver highly specialised, complex care, and through the development of assisted technology enabling care to be delivered closer to home. This will require the redesign of working patterns, the development of new skills and expertise and the opportunity to create new roles. London plays an important role both nationally and internationally in training and developing future healthcare professionals but suffers from high labour turnover and loss of key staff to other parts of the country. For example, London trains 29% of UK medical undergraduates but over a third of these students do not work there after graduation. For nursing and midwifery, London’s share of students (18.3%) is in proportion to the number of staff employed (17.7%). However, it is believed that London exports qualified and experienced staff to the rest of England, as demonstrated by consistently higher vacancy rates.
Workforce for London: A Strategic Framework
The purpose of the review which lead to the strategic framework was to assess the impact of anticipated changes in healthcare needs, demographic trends, technology and patient and public expectations on the future size, shape and composition of London’s healthcare workforce and the changes required to how the organisation plans, trains, develops and deploys its employees. To assist in the workforce planning process, NHS London employed scenario modelling to provide insight into the strategic challenges ahead, and how these will affect the overall shape and size of London’s workforce.
Scenario modelling approach taken in Workforce for London
The resulting strategic framework identified a number of both quantitative and qualitative changes in the NHS workforce needed to meet the challenges of the coming decade. In broad terms, the strategic framework acknowledged the central role played by the workforce in high quality service delivery but identified that staff were not fully utilised (productivity levels of staff in London were lower than elsewhere in England). The review suggested that London’s NHS workforce will need to grow by between 4% and 23% over the next ten years dependent on the level of productivity delivered. The framework outlined three broad strands in how NHS London should respond to the demand and supply forecasting process.
The first focuses on the quantitative dimensions of the required workforce needed to increase productivity, improve service quality and to address wider initiatives in the NHS regarding the delivery of care. The review indicated a need to develop new roles and new skills through increased targeted workforce development and investment, For example, the review advocates the development of broader sets of skills across the workforce. The review also suggests changes to where and how practitioners work, particularly through providing care closer to people’s homes. The review also suggested enhancing employment opportunities for Londoners to reduce turnover, and to develop a workforce more representative of the community it serves.
The second element focuses on the systems required to support this ‘new’ workforce. In particular, it stresses the importance of the effective integration of workforce planning, and educational investment, with service needs, particularly through the localisation (as far as possible) of workforce planning, tailored to meet the diverse needs of patients.
Finally, the framework proposes a number of changes to leadership processes, with a particular focus on fostering a climate of worker engagement and empowering front-line staff to ‘improve and develop the services they provide, creating new freedoms to innovate and provide the leadership for local change’. In response to recent staff surveys, NHS staff indicated that a positive relationship with staff tends to relate to improved performance and the framework indicates a desire to engender team working and ‘partnership’ across the organisation. The framework also indicates a need to develop excellent leaders at all levels of the organisation and to develop a pipeline of talent for Chief Executive and Director roles across the capital.
What are the relevant factors which are shaping the supply and demand for medical practitioners in London over the coming decade? To what extent are these factors reasonably predictable?
Some of the factors responsible for shaping the supply and demand for manpower in this regard include the delayed retirement by many healthcare organizations. This means that most of the graduates lack job placements and opportunities thereby piling up in numbers or seeking opportunities outside the town. Advances in technology are increasingly reorganizing the number of people to be employed and overall efficiency of the healthcare sector (Kahane, 2012). The EU proposal of 2009 on flexible work arrangements will significantly redefine the workforce shape of healthcare personnel in London. The increasing globalization and campaign for better healthcare promotes use of modern technology, flexible working policy and prolonged working tenure indicates precise prediction of the currently observed trend.
What responses to the workforce planning process are outlined in the case?
Training the personnel to conform to the increasing need for expertise in using modern technology in service delivery in the healthcare sector is a critical aspect of workforce planning process as indicated in the case study. Flexible work policy also provides an incentive to the workforce in healthcare sector which is headed for better quality of service delivery and overall performance.
Why might the formal approach to workforce planning used by NHS London not necessarily be appropriate in many private sector organisations?
Most private organizations are run by few individuals who dictate several workforce related issues. This is a different case with public healthcare sector which is accountable to a larger body of stakeholders (Bechet, 2008). The workforce planning by the private sector organization is not bound by several rules and regulations that apply in the case of public sector.
How can HR planning contribute to the achievement of organisational objective in all organisations?
HR planning is critical in mobilizing human capital to different and relevant departments so that their diverse specialized contribution makes the overall efficiency and performance desirable. It is important to note that physical capital like machinery may not operate without human expertise hence the centrality of the HR department in any organization (Bechet, 2008). Sound planning strategies in which the right personnel are assigned the right work and allocated reasonable time with resources help the organization to achieve its objectives.
PART C –PROJECT
Please read the following scenario answer the questions below and then complete the Workforce Plan
Tourism operators on the Gold Coast have traditionally turned to the use of contingent labour to address the peaks and troughs of seasonal workflow. While the use of contingent labour has merits, which include reduced labour costs and benefits, companies may also face limited control over employee quality, performance, and commitment as well as complex employment laws surrounding the rights of contingent workers.
Further, organisations sometimes overlook their most immediate resources when searching for ways to address seasonal workload fluctuations. The predictability of seasonal fluctuations offers employers a chance to rethink their workforce infrastructure and consider ways to reallocate labour and resources for the purposes of meeting seasonal business needs.
AS HR manager you have been requested to implement a workforce plan for the long term to ensure your organisation has a continually high standard of customer service.
Please complete the following Workforce Plan Template
-442595175895For Years 20XX-XX
WORKFORCE PLANNING TEAM
Aggrey Onea General manager
For Years 20XX-XX
WORKFORCE PLANNING TEAM
Aggrey Onea General manager
Workforce Plan Template
WORKFORCE GOAL (S), OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES
Restate your organisation’s workforce goal(s), outcomes, objectives, environmental scan factors, success factors and inhibitors as reported in the strategic plan.
To invest in high skilled personnel that is specialized in specific fields of value creation activity in the organization
This will lead to a more efficient worforce that will ensure quality for customers, more wealth maximization for shareholders, improved image of the organization and overall performance of firm.
Putting emphasis on competitive recruitment that will offer equal opportunity for all the potential workers.
ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN FACTORS (Optional – organisations are encouraged to continue the environmental scanning process)
List the key internal and external environmental factors related to this workforce goal.
Rules and regulations that govern internal administrative processes
External factors include government rules and regulations
Labour laws i.e. minimum wage.
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
List critical success factors related to this workforce goal:
Sound human resource management team
Training facilities for new recruits
List critical success inhibitors related to this workforce goal:
Restrictive government rules and regulations
Limited skilled human resource experts
Limited experience among the jobseekers
Higher financial requirements for outsourcing agencies.
List positions, groups of positions, job classes, roles that are considered critical to achieving mission success and have been targeted for workforce planning purposes.
-Human resource manager
These positions are critical in the overall execution of the planned mission of improving the personnel recruitment, training and management.
NOTE: In addition to any other critical positions targeted by other HR strategies, organisations are encourage to target leadership, management and supervisory positions as part of succession-planning strategies.
STAFFING, COMPETENCY, AND DIVERSITY GAPS
For all critical positions described above, list all currently identified Staffing, Competency and Diversity Gaps.
Staffing: A high skilled staff with good interpersonal relations
Competency: A minimum post-high school education with excellent academic competency.
Diversity: Gender balance is critical in achieving the specified goals due to skills and potential diversity
HUMAN RESOURCE STRATEGIES
For all critical positions described above, list acquisition (e.g., recruitment and selection) development (e.g., succession planning, knowledge management) and/or retention strategies that will be used to close the identified gaps. Include information about which concerns the strategies will address.
NOTE: In addition to any other HR strategies, organisations should include succession-planning strategies as part of their response to workforce planning.
Before submitting your assessment please check it against the points listed below to be satisfied that all factors have been considered in creating a plan which will deliver the desired workforce outcomes
2. Checklist for Evaluating the Workforce Planning Effort
Is the workforce plan based on the organisation’s strategic plan, and does it support the mission, future vision, core values, and goals?
Does top management support it?
Has data analysis been conducted that analyses demographic and environmental impacts on the workforce plan?
Has relevant information been extracted from the organisation’s human resource information systems and does it include indicators such as distribution of employees by classification, age, attrition rates; retirement rates; and ratios of managers to supervisors etc?
Has the organisation determined the number and type of employees that will be needed to address the challenges of the next three to five years?
Has the number and types of competencies been defined for employees in each occupational group?
Have skill levels for each competency been determined and listed?
Are there clear indications that the organisation has identified the roles and core competencies needed to support its goals and service delivery strategies?
Has an analysis been performed that assesses the gap between current competencies and those needed for the future?
Does the analysis also address workforce size, demographics, occupations, and geographical locations?
Have strategies been developed to address the gaps between the project supply and demand?
Have action plans to execute the strategies been clearly laid out, including responsible parties, due dates, and resources needed?
As needed, are there specific strategies to address leadership succession planning, compensation, performance management, an employee-friendly workplace, recruitment & hiring, training & professional development?
Has the plan been communicated to employees and stakeholders?
Has the trust of the workforce been earned by involving employees in the strategic and workforce planning processes?
Is integrated workforce planning support provided by human resources staff?
Are the workforce plan and strategies continually monitored and refined to ensure their ongoing effectiveness and continuous improvement, taking into account resource changes, and other conditions impacting the organisation?
3. Work Planning, Performance Review & Career Development
DETAILS: fill in the below document with detail of what type of staff member (achievements,skills,aspirations) you would look at and require for your workforce goals as part of the organisation`s succession plan
MEMBER Name: James Ohara
Position title: Human resource manager Level of appointment: Management
MANAGER Name: Alice O’Neil
Position title: Operation manager
Date of review:18/02/2014 Period covered by performance review:3 weeks
Staff member’s reflection on the year
Objective 1:To improve personal efficiency
Achievements / reflections /skills developed/ future directions: Personal initiative has been the force behind excellent performance.
Other achievements / comments: improved quality of service through more part-time training
Line manager’s comments
Manager’s outline of the strategic direction of the organisation and opportunities for progression/advancement over 1 to 3 year timeframe: The organization plans to campaign for further training and periodic job appraisal for better performance of workforce
Staff member’s comments
Staff member’s preferences for professional development/promotion/advancement and proposed action plan:
Improving the welfare of workers through increased funding by the organization.
Abrams, R. M. (2003). The successful business plan: Secrets & strategies. Palo Alto, CA: Plannignshop.
Bechet, T. P. (2008). Strategic staffing: A comprehensive system for effective workforce planning. New York: American Management Association.
Borkowski, N. (2011). Organizational behavior in health care. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Henry, A. (2011). Understanding strategic management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.