The history of Human Resources Management
Human Resources Management
HRM is an abbreviation for human resource management which is the management of a company’s labor force. HRM is applicable in three levels namely long term, also called strategic, managerial term also called medium term and the operational level that is short term. HRM depicts that employees in an organization are valuable and very resourceful in terms of investing in time and enhancing the efforts geared towards the organization’s advancements. With HRM, there is a strong notion that, every employer is unique in their own special characteristics and for these reason workers cannot be treated like material resources. (Werther and Davis, 1996)
In HRM, human resources do not simply focus on employees as individuals, but also their social authenticities, divisions and practices in the organization. The HRM model is employee-oriented with an emphasis on the maximizing distinct personal skills and incentives through proper communication with the employees. Properly planned human resource management increases productivity and commitment levels towards achievement of company long term objectives (Werther and Davis, 1996).
The functions of HRM are societal,functional, organizational and personal. Major functions are planning, staffing, employee growth, and maintenance. The societal functions are legal amenability,benefits and managementrelations.Organizational objectives are human resource planning,training and development,selection, placement, assessment,employee relations andappraisal(Obeidat, 2012).Functionalobjectivesare appraisal,placement, and assessment.Personal Objectives are training and development,appraisal, placement,compensation and assessment. In other words, HRMfunctions are employee attraction, selection, training, outsourcing, recruitment, selection and placement, rewarding,appraisal,development,telecommuting,performance evaluation, compensation, assessment, and rewarding of employees. Globalization has expanded these functions to include talent management, succession, trade and employment relations,acquisitions, diversity, planning andinclusion (Obeidat, 2012)
Adopting a strategic HRM process means prioritizing on human resource management as well as integrating it with company’s strategy, mission, and goals and define how they can be achieved. Inorganizing strategic HRM, organizations have adopted the ARDM model.ARDM is an abbreviation for Acquiring, Rewarding, Developing, Maintaining and protecting. The goal of the model is to ensure Social responsible and ethical practices among staff members. The ARDM model has four specific stages: thediagnosis stage, prescription stage,implementation stage,and the evaluation. Evaluation tells managers whether improvement in the ARDM process is needed (Werther and Davis, 1996).
Human resource management is of importance and great impact on an organization,the Human Resource Information System (HRIS) and UAE. HRIS is defined as an cohesive system that uses databases, computer applications, hardware and software tocollect, store, manage, distribute, hoard and estimate the information about an organization’s human resources’ (Hendrickson, 2003).HR planning process makes it easier for HRIS awareness systemsto trackniches in workforce, analyze quantity and quality of employees and blueprintforthcoming workforce necessities (Dessler, 2005).
Through HR, HRIS can sustain long term planning throughfacts for labor force development, supply and demand estimates, staffing with information on equal employment opportunities, shortlisting and applicant qualification, development of information on training programs, salary forecasts, budgets and employee relations as well as data on contract negotiations and employee assistance needs (Shibly, 2011). Human resource management aids the HRIS perform more simplefunctions like simple storage and communication and complex ones. HRIS gives an opportunity for human resource professionals to become qualified strategic partners. HR allows HRIS to function more efficient by providing better information for making decisions (Beadles, Lowery& Johns, 2005). HRIS is made effective as HR professionals act as an experience for management by placingemployees for best positions in the right time (Gürol, Wolff & Ertemsir, 2010).
HRM helps an organization as it inflates awareness of potentials,identifies strengths and weaknesses, discloses opportunities, emphasizes on need to evaluate the influence of internal and external forces.Astrategic HRM process requires environmental, scanning, formulation, interpretation and evaluation. Realizationof HRMsuccess is realized when the outcome creates employees that are best for their job in terms of needs, skills, and abilities (Ingham, 2008).
In 2007, International Journal of Human Resource Management’s on the UAE indicated that nations have heavily invested in human resource management because graduates fall short of the quality and quantity of skills demanded for in the labor market. In many organizations, eradication of gender discrimination has failed. This has forced the organizations to opt for borrowed professions and hence expected level of productivitylowered. Some organizations give payrolls beyond their ability. The scenario forced some UAE nationals to resign. However, through human resource management; salaries have been fairly awarded according to organizational abilities (Ingham, 2008).
Besides gender inequality in issuance of positions and salary, nepotism prevails among employees in UAE. Human resource management has been used to inspire the practice of systematic criteria in worker selection such as learning and aptitude tests, establishing an adjudication commission with the authority to scrutinize and manage protests of nepotism, psychometric, compulsory evidence of transparent recruitment and compensation practices inemployers (Ingham, 2008)
In UAEcurrent times, the Human Resource policies in are targetedto focusing on increasing the number of national employees in the private sector. UAE is the lone country in the world whose private sector employs more number of expatriates than local candidates (HR policies in UAE, 2012) human resource management is being used to end this trend .Emiratization of the work force in UAE has made specific provisions for enabling the local workforce gain positions in the private companies in UAE (HR policies in UAE, 2012).
This policy is also supposed to change the work culture in the United Arab Emirates. A large number of UAE nationals over the past years have been favoring government employments over private sector jobs because of the benefits that come with such employment opportunities. In a bid to curb this trend, the United Arab Emirates government has made substantial changes in its labor laws to make HR policies in UAE favorable for those working in the private sector.A labor law has made national candidates as the first preference for any job category (HR policies in UAE, 2012)
The labor law in UAE has fixed the weekly working rate of forty eight hours. Any overtime or extra hours of work is allocated to only in case of specific services like hospitality and security. For any extra hour of work each employee undertakes other than those mentioned above, the company has to get a recommendation from the labor ministry (HR policies in UAE, 2012).
According to the Emiratizationstrategy of UAE, allemployees are given pension, benefits, and disability benefits in a bid to regulate the scheme. Labor Ministry has entitled private sector employees the same social security benefits as the government employees. Most UAE staff receives social welfare benefits through insurance, pension schemes, health insurances(HR policies in UAE, 2012)
In conclusion, it is important for organizations to monitor, train and appreciate their employers since they play a big role in the realization of company goals. Human resource management ensures satisfaction of employees by issuing them with work they are best qualified for and comfortable with. A satisfied workforce is committed to making an organization succeed. Adoption of the ADRM model makes human resource more efficient as evident from companies who have used it to attain long term organizational goals. The UAE is one nation that has embraced human resource management as a solution to fair anti gender salary and position discrimination, long working hours, offering benefits and pension schemes as well as eradicating nepotism in the recruitment and selection of employees.
Beadles, N. A., Lowery, C. M., & Johns, K. (2005). The impact of human resourceinformation systems. Retrieved December 10, 2012, from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CC8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fiima.org%2FCIIMA%2F11%25205.4_Beadles_39-46.pdf&ei=VRHGUOTsJMmo0QXDqIHYCQ&usg=AFQjCNHl9RTE-hNrquqVUu8wuZvcVR4KdQDessler, G. (2005) Human Resource Management. New York: Prentice Hall.
Gürol, Y., Wolff, A., & Ertemsir B. E. (2010). E-HRM in Turkey: A case study. In I. Lee (Ed.), Encyclopedia of E-Business Development and Management in the Global Economy. Pennsylvania: IGI Global Snippet.
Hendrickson, A. R. (2003). Human resource information systems. Retrieved December 10, 2012, from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springerlink.com%2Findex%2F7tf03c73eayku8gv.pdf&ei=xhDGULWbOu-R0QWm44DICA&usg=AFQjCNGMtESAbpAHO_4XeQOze6aiuq_v3wHR policies in UAE. (2012). Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://www.jobzing.com/uae/hr-policies/Ingham, J. (2008). HR strategies in Dubai. Retrieved December 10, 2012, from http://strategic-hcm.blogspot.com/2009/04/hr-strategies-in-dubai.html
Obeidat, B. Y. (2012). The Relationship between Human Resource Information System Functions and Human Resource Management Functionalities. Retrieved December 10, 2012, from http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/jmr/article/view/2262Shibly, H. (2011). Human resources information systems success assessment. Retrieved December 10, 2012, from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CC8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ajbasweb.com%2Fajbas%2F2011%2F157-169.pdf&ei=mQ_GUPDSDPKY0QXmsYDgBQ&usg=AFQjCNFzv6SESYWbErnb0Vh_TKNgXuSytAWilliam B. Werther, Jr., & Keith Davis.(1996).Human Resources and Personnel Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.