# How do you understand the term paradigm? What is meant by this term? Why is this term important to the study of research?

Question #1. Answer Practice Test question #4 on Ch. 1 (p. 26) of the Christensen et al. textbook. What is

the reasoning behind your answer? (word count 200)

Question #2. How do you understand the term paradigm? What is meant by this term? Why is this term important to the study of research? (word count 200)

Question #3. What distinguishes research from nonresearch? (word count 200)

Answer each question below

The expressed equation of would reflect the __________ of a population.

A. The basic representation of constancy in a set of data

B. A well known inequality that esitmates the error in statistical calculation

C. The Population Standard Deviation which is the square root of the Variance

D. The Population Variance which is the square root of the Standard Deviation

2) (Solve for X)

A. 3

B. 4

C. 5

D. 16

3) A specific score in a distribution of data minus the mean and divided by the standard deviation produces a value known as?

A. Coefficient of Determination

B. Variability Score

C. Z Score

D. Beta

4) Identify the correct order of operations for calculation of basic math problems

A.

Rule 1: First perform any calculations inside parentheses.

Rule 2: Next perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.

Rule 3: Lastly, perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.

B.

Rule 1: First perform any calculations inside parentheses.

Rule 2: Next perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.

Rule 3: Lastly, perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.

C.

Rule 1: First perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.

Rule 2: Next perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.

Rule 3: Lastly, perform any calculations inside parentheses.

D.

Rule 1: First perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.

Rule 2: Next perform any calculations inside parentheses.

Rule 3: Lastly, perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.

5) If someone scored two Standard Deviations above the Mean on a standardized test where the Mean = 100 and the Standard Deviation = 15, then that person’s numerical score would be?

A. 125

B. 160

C. 130

D. 90th Percentile

6) would be correctly expressed as?

A. 11, 12

B. 5, 6

C. 3, 9

D. 5, 15

7) An extreme score that sets apart in value from the general distribution of values with which it is connected is known as?

A. Incongruous data

B. Outlier

C. Anomalous indicator

D. Champion score

8) What particular measure of correlation would be most appropriate for use with two variables measured at an ordinal level?

A. Contingency Coefficient

B. PearsonÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s r

C. Chi Square

D. SpearmanÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã¢â€žÂ¢s Rho

9) In a distribution of data conforming to the characteristics of a Normal Curve, the percentage of cases between Plus One and Minus One Standard Deviation from the Mean would beÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã‚Â¦?

A. 84%

B. 99.3%

C. 95%

D. 68%

10) Nominal is to Category as Ordinal is to———————?

A. Range

B. Association

C. Breadth

D. Rank

11) Given the Variable X measured at a Nominal Level, what descriptive statistical indice would you give if asked to provide the most representative value of the set?

A. Modal frequency

B. Mean

C. Range

D. Median

12) The formula &quot;&quot; is a common expression for calculation of the?

A. Range

B. Mean

C. Variance

D. Standard Deviation

13) (Solve for X)

A. 31

B. 17

C. 12

D. 21

14) The condition of scores being distorted in one direction or the other (towards the ends of the distribution) within a given distribution of data is known as———————–?

A. Skewness

B. Discontinuity

C. Kurtosis

D. Asynchronous

15) Independent trials in relationship to probability theory means that———————-?

A. The outcome of each trial is dependent upon the previous but not the following

B. The outcome of each trial is totally independent from each other trial conducted

C. Each outcome has an indendent relationship to the whole

D. Influences of trials on the outcome are subtle overall

16) A within quantitative theory represents————————-?

A. Any collection M into a whole of definite, distinct objects m (which are called the &quot;elements&quot; of M) of our perception [Anschauung] or of our thought

B. Elements of a defined characteristic

C. An infinite ordered array of objects

D. Any collection of M into a whole that is representative overall the the nature of the the target being observed

17) If , then 5 to the third power (i.e., 53) would equal————————–?

A. 125

B. 150

C. 50

D. 225

18) All the following are measures of variability or dispersion within a set of data except———————–?

A. Standard Deviation

B. Median

C. Range

D. Variance

19) In a 95% Confidence Interval, the true mean has what chance of falling between the Lower Limit and Upper Limits of the calculated confidence interval?

A. 5%

B. .90

C. .05

D. 95%

20) The Standard Error of Measurement is calculated by what formula?

A.

B.

C.

D.

21) The defining characteristics of the Ratio Level of Measurement are?

A. Unequal intervals between points and a true zero

B. Equal intervals between points on a scale but an arbitrary zero point

C. Equal intervals between points of that scale and a true zero

D. An arbitrary zero with specified rank ordering of scale points

22) Expected relative frequency probability represents a calculated probability based on large numbers of trials. In an example of a deck of 52 cards, where you randomly pull cards from the deck and record what they are, you find that over 1000 random draws, you pull an ACE 76 times. What would be the calculated probability based on relative frequency?

A. .76

B. .076

C. .30

D. 10%

23) A Dichotomous Variable represents what level of measurement within the realm of quantitative analysis?

A. Interval

B. Nominal

C. Ratio

D. Ordinal

24) Independent Variable is to CAUSE as Dependent Variable is to?

A. Perception

B. Effect

C. Response

D. Predictor

25) What is the relationship of the Mean, Median and Mode as Measures of Central Tendency in a true Normal Curve?

A. They align Mode, Median and Mean in that order

B. They align Median, Mode and Mean in that order

C. They align Mean, Median and Mode in that order

D. They are equal