Which one of the below-given instructions can be followed for applying a topical antibiotic or antiviral ointment?


Question 80. Question :

Which one of the below-given instructions can be followed for applying a topical antibiotic or antiviral ointment?

Apply thickly to the infected area, spreading the medication well past the borders of the infection

If the rash worsens, apply a thicker layer of medication to settle down the infection

Wash hands before and after application of topical antimicrobials

None of the above

Question 81. Question :

Sadie is a ninety-year-old patient who requires a new prescription. What changes in drug distribution with aging would influence prescribing for Sadie?

Increased volume of distribution

Decreased lipid solubility

Decreased plasma proteins

Increased muscle-to-fat ratio

Question 82. Question :

First-line therapy for treating topical fungal infections such as tinea corporis (ringworm) or tinea pedis (athlete’s foot) would be:

OTC topical azole (clotrimazole, miconazole)

Oral terbinafine

Oral griseofulvin microsize

Nystatin cream or ointment

Question 83. Question :

Which of the following is true about procainamide and its dosing schedule?

It produces bradycardia and should be used cautiously in patients with cardiac conditions that a slower heart rate might worsen.

GI adverse effects are common, so the drug should be taken with food.

Adherence can be improved by using a sustained-release formulation that can be given once daily.

Doses of this drug should be taken evenly spaced around the clock to keep an even blood level.

Question 84. Question :

A nurse practitioner would prescribe the liquid form of ibuprofen for a six-year-old because:

Drugs given in liquid form are less irritating to the stomach.

A six-year-old may have problems swallowing a pill.

Liquid forms of medication eliminate the concern for first-pass effect.

Liquid ibuprofen does not have to be dosed as often as tablet form.

Question 85. Question :

Kristine would like to start HRT to treat the significant vasomotor symptoms she is experiencing during menopause. Education for a woman considering hormone replacement would include:

Explaining that HRT is totally safe if used for a short term

Telling her to ignore media hype regarding HRT

Discussing the advantages and risks of HRT

Encouraging the patient to use phytoestrogens with the HRT

Question 86. Question :

Xi, a fifty-four-year-old female, has a history of migraine that does not respond well to OTC migraine medication. She is asking to try Maxalt (rizatriptan) because it works well for her friend. Which of the following actions would you take for appropriate decision making?

Prescribe Maxalt, but to monitor the use, only give her four tablets with no refills.

Prescribe Maxalt and arrange to have her observed in the clinic or urgent care with the first dose.

Explain that rizatriptan is not used for postmenopausal migraines and recommend Fiorinal (aspirin and butalbital).

Prescribe sumatriptan (Imitrex) with the explanation that it is the most effective triptan.

Question 87. Question :

The elderly are at high risk of ADRs due to:

Having greater muscle mass than younger adults, leading to higher volume of distribution

The extensive studies that have been conducted on drug safety in this age group

The blood-brain barrier being less permeable, requiring higher doses to achieve therapeutic effect

Age-related decrease in renal function

Question 88. Question :

Jim presents with fungal infection of two of his toenails (onychomycosis). Treatment for fungal infections of the nail includes:

Miconazole cream

Ketoconazole cream

Oral griseofulvin

Mupirocin cream

Question 89. Question :

GLP-1 agonists:

Directly bind to a receptor in the pancreatic beta cell.

Have been approved for monotherapy.

Speed gastric emptying to decrease appetite.

Can be given orally once daily.

Question 90. Question :

Prophylactic use of bisphosphonates is recommended for patients with early osteopenia related to long-term use of which of the following drugs?

Selective estrogen-receptor modulators

Aspirin

Glucocorticoids

Calcium supplements

Question 91. Question :

Inadequate vitamin D intake can contribute to the development of osteoporosis by:

Increasing calcitonin production

Increasing calcium absorption from the intestine

Altering calcium metabolism

Stimulating bone formation

Question 92. Question :

Which of the following statements is true about age and pain?

Use of drugs that depend heavily on the renal system for excretion may require dosage adjustments in very young children.

Among the NSAIDs, indomethacin is the preferred drug because of lower adverse effects profiles than other NSAIDs.

Older adults who have dementia probably do not experience much pain due to loss of pain receptors in the brain.

Acetaminophen is especially useful in both children and adults because it has no effect on platelets and has fewer adverse effects than NSAIDs.

Question 93. Question :

Selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs) treat osteoporosis by selectively:

Inhibiting magnesium resorption in the kidneys

Increasing calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract

Acting on the bone to inhibit osteoblast activity

Selectively acting on the estrogen receptors in the bone

Question 94. Question :

When a patient is on selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors:

The complete blood count must be monitored every three to four months

Therapeutic blood levels must be monitored every six months after a steady state is achieved.

Blood glucose must be monitored every three to four months.

There is no laboratory monitoring required.

Question 95. Question :

Patients whose total dose of prednisone exceed 1 gram will most likely need a second prescription for _________.

metformin, a biguanide to prevent diabetes

omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor to prevent peptic ulcer disease

naproxen, an NSAID to treat joint pain

furosemide, a diuretic to treat fluid retention

Question 96. Question :

The ongoing monitoring of patients over the age sixty-five years taking alendronate (Fosamax) or any other bisphosphonate is:

Annual dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans

Annual vitamin D level

Annual renal function evaluation

Electrolytes every three months

Question 97. Question :

Anticholinergic agents, such as benztropine (Cogentin), may be given with a phenothiazine to:

Reduce the chance of tardive dyskinesia.

Potentiate the effects of the drug.

Reduce the tolerance that tends to occur.

Increase CNS depression.

Question 98. Question :

Diagnostic criteria for diabetes include:

Fasting blood glucose greater than 140 mg/dl on two occasions

Postprandial blood glucose greater than 140 mg/dl

Fasting blood glucose 100 to 125 mg/dl on two occasions

Symptoms of diabetes plus a casual blood glucose greater than 200 mg/dl

Question 99. Question :

Insulin preparations are divided into categories based on onset, duration, and intensity of action following subcutaneous inject. Which of the following insulin preparations has the shortest onset and duration of action?

Insulin lispro

Insulin glulisine

Insulin glargine

Insulin detemir

Question 100. Cynthia is taking valproate (Depakote) for seizures and would like to get pregnant. What advice would you give her?

Valproate is safe during all trimesters of pregnancy.

She can get pregnant while taking valproate, but she should take adequate folic acid.

Valproate is not safe at any time during pregnancy.

Valproate is a known teratogen but may be taken after the first trimester if necessary.

 

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