Write a memo to your instructor analyzing both websites and their audiences (primary and secondary) and explain the persuasive strategies each website uses to serve its primary audience’s needs.

Audience Analysis Memo

This read-me of the assignment sheet is for your benefit. This read-me gives you an exact overview of what is expected for the major assignment for this unit.

Effective communication depends largely on understanding your audience. Your audience’s expectations, characteristics, knowledge level, and information needs determine the content you choose to present, the depth of detail you provide, the overall tone or attitude of your writing, and even the purpose you establish for your communication.

In addition to knowing the importance of analyzing audience, you should also be able to distinguish a document’s primary and secondary audiences.

  • Primary audiences are the major intended readers for your document. In the workplace, your primary audience is the person or persons who will understand and act on your message.
  • Secondary audiences are the other potential readers of your document. These are people who may receive a copy of your document.

Most workplace communication has a combination of primary and secondary audiences. For example, people attended your presentation (primary audience) might later share information about your presentation and your handouts with people who didn’t attend (secondary audience).

Assignment Guidelines: 

For this assignment, choose two (2) websites that present information on the same subject. However, the two (2) websites should be aimed at different primary audiences. One website should be designed for a non-technical audience and the other for a technical/specialized audience.

Write a memo to your instructor analyzing both websites and their audiences (primary and secondary) and explain the persuasive strategies each website uses to serve its primary audience’s needs.

Original Question:

Topic: Public Administration Reform and the Future

Discuss statesmanship as it relates to public administration reform and the future.  Discuss the challenges and opportunities that a would-be statesman would face in this area and the statecraft needed to lead successfully.

APA citations/references required


Reply to the following response with *** 300 words minimum, including direct questions to the post ***. (please make response as if having a conversation, respond directly to some of the statements in below post. This is not providing an analysis of the original post. Respectfully address it and even ask clarifying or additional questions.)

Responding to a classmate’s post requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward. Reply posts that merely affirm, restate or unprofessionally quarrel with the previous post(s) and fail to make a valuable, substantive contribution to the discussion will receive appropriate point deductions.

** These responses are to be informative and contribute to advancing the knowledge of the topic **.


The traditional approach used by public organizations to interact with constituents and provide services has not kept up with the challenges faced by government or the dynamic demands of society. A major challenge of government is to do more with less especially when traditional funding sources such as the gas tax dry up due to the popularity of electric vehicles. Additionally, society expects government to solve complex problems which stem from multi-causes like effects of the global economy, lack of livable wages, drug addiction, and increased negative views of public organizations, to name a few. Up through President JFK, the government was viewed favorably, but the Vietnam conflict was the turning point where government could not be trusted as was seen as wasteful and inefficient (Minginess, 2018). During the 90s and 2000s, Presidents Bush and Clinton responded with attempts to improve government through decreased spending, privatization of services, and treatment of the citizenry as customers. The two reform platforms implemented to bring government into the post-industrial era were New Public Management and Reinventing Government (Denhardt, Denhardt, & Blanc, 2014).  

By implementing those principals of New Public Management and Reinvention which are in harmony with covenantal principals, statesmen can redeem the reputation and enhance the performance of public organizations. These reforms call for organizations that are mission-driven and decentralized (Denhardt et al., 2014). Statesmen create mission driven organizations by connecting the values and skills of employees with the organization’s vision and goals (Fischer, 2010). They encourage employee commitment and ownership of the process by sharing the big-picture about the organization’s purpose, strategies, and constraints. This is consistent with covenantal relationships where participants’ strengths and uniqueness are recognized and each works together to accomplish the goal. Similarly, scripture says the body is made up of unique members which are all important and needed to carry out the mission (I Cor. 12:27).

Decentralization is supported by statesmen providing opportunities for employees to participate in organizational decision-making (Fischer, 2010). This power sharing is a covenant principal that allows employees to use their gifts and knowledge to achieve everything they were created to do. For we are created in Christ for good works which God prepared for us ahead of time (Eph. 2:10). Employees who traditionally have not been included in making decisions are often street bureaucrats who have more contact with constituents daily. The organization can benefit from their participation in decision-making since they are familiar with needs and challenges of existing processes and procedures.

Decentralization also allows private and non-profit sectors to participate in providing public services. This presents both pros and cons. Benefits of allowing non-government spheres of sovereignty toparticipate include reducing the size of government, increasing efficiency, and providing expertise. From the biblical concept of the head tax established in Israel, God’s intended role of government was limited to keeping civil order and funded with a fixed amount (Ex. 30:15). However, a major drawback of non-government participation is lack of equity for communities receiving services and lack of regulatory accountability because they are not held to the same standards as government agencies (Minginess, 2018). Lastly, Denhardt (2014) pointed out New Public Management and Reinvention tended to neglect democracy for efficiency and treat the citizenry like customers of government instead of the owners. Statesmen can address these challenges using technology to engage constituents regarding the quality of work provided by non-government bodies, requiring these bodies to use technology to increase transparency, and reform policies to hold them accountable to government standards.   


Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Blanc, T. A. (2014). Public administration: An action orientation (7th ed.).  Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

Fischer, K. (2010). A biblical-covenantal perspective on organizational behavior & leadership: Lesson 8 [Class Handout]. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University, PADM 610.

Minginess, H. (2018). The new public service (video). Liberty University Helms School of Government. Accessed May 15, 2019. https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-31122974-dt-content-rid-376443713_1/xid-376443713_1


Fast paced and ever changing are words that can easily describe almost any profession or field within the workplace.  Public Administration is definitely no exception to this outlook.  As we have learned this week, the field of public administration has changed substantially over the past several decades, and more changes within the field are sure to come.  Some of the biggest changes experienced in the field have been the transition from Old Public Administration to New Public Administration, and then from New Public Administration to what is currently known as New Public Service (McGinnis, n.d.).  Of the numerous changes involved in each of these transitions, a couple of the major points involve the role of the government in each as well as to whom the public servants are responsive.  According to McGinnis, the role of the government went from implementing policies focused on a politically defined objective, to a role of serving as a catalyst for market forces, to now being focused on a servant ship based upon combined shared values among citizens and community groups.  Not only did the role of the government change, but to whom the government was/is responsive changed as well.  Beginning with the Old Public Administration the government was responsive to clients and constituents, New Public Management changed that to being responsive to customers, and New Public Service now has government responsive to citizens (McGinnis, n.d.).  These changes, combined with a host of others in regard to the evolvement to New Public Service paint the picture of how quickly and vastly things change in the field of public administration.  Couple these changes along with the enormous changes in technology over the decades and one can easily see that public administrators have faced great challenge as the field has progressed.  Technological advancements have had a profound impact on government at all levels.  Technology has served to benefit the citizens in many ways such as offering and nearly requiring transparency from our government, as well as allowing citizens to have easier access to a host of governmental reports and services (Denhardt, Denhardt, & Blanc, 2014).  Government websites currently give citizens access to everything from budget reports, proposed changes to ordinances and laws, council meeting agendas and minutes, all the way to offering access to utility bills, tax statements, and online bill pay options.  Each of these changes has provided a level of benefit to the citizens whom the government serves, but it also brings about challenges.  Advancements such as these have required administrators to become lifelong learners in order to keep up changes in the field.  No longer can administrators possess the ideal that citizens are not worthy of questioning their actions and activities as leaders.  Administrators must understand that statesmanship is now required of them in order to serve as the best possible leaders for the citizens, as well as leaders for Christ through their actions.  The true statesman leader in public administration must commit to constant learning in order to keep up with changes in the field, as well as demands from and responsibilities to the citizens whom they serve.  There is much value placed on learning throughout the Bible, specifically in the book of Proverbs the value of knowledge is placed as more valuable than having silver or gold (Proverbs, 2012).  Through Scripture placing such value upon knowledge there is a direct correlation with education and lifelong learning.  Administrators who possess true statesmanship must be educated in both biblical and worldly teachings in order to effectively serve Christ and citizens alike, as well as to be a catalyst to spearhead change to provide the best possible leadership.


Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Blanc, T. A. (2014).  Public Administration: An Action Orientation (7th ed.).  Boston, MA: Wadsworth.

McGinnis, H. (n.d.).  Presentation: The New Public Service.  Retrieved from Liberty University: https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/courses/PADM610_B02_201930/PADM610_LUO_8WK_MASTER_ImportedContent_20180723025359/Presentations/Module%208/html5.html

Proverbs. (2012).  In Holy Bible: King James Version.  Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.


Public administration thinking and practice have always responded to new challenges and the shortcomings of what came before. An emerging approach of public administration highlights four important stances that together represent a response to current challenges and old shortcomings. These include an emphasis on public value and public values, a recognition that government has a special role as a guarantor of public values, a belief in the importance of public management broadly conceived and of service to and for the public, and a heightened emphasis on citizenship and democratic and collaborative governance (Bryson, Crosby, & Bloomberg, 2014). Jeremiah 29:11 “For I know the plans I have for you, declares the Lord, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope”.

Reform has succeeded reform, with no time for the intended changes to take effect, no evaluation, and no clear evidence of either success or failure. Rather, we are left with the dilemmas created by the overlapping residues of past reforms (Rhodes, 2016). In a pluralistic society, where there are many criteria for success and different causal understandings, we have to go beyond the idea of a single organizational principle to understand how public organizations work and are reformed and look at them as composite organizations.

Statesman will face the challenge of being able to implement reform policies that are in the best the interest of the people, with an understanding that it may not be accepted freely and openly by the people due to the many different reforms that have already been put into place and the inability to see what worked and didn’t work in previous reforms. They must be able to assist the people in obtaining their mutual interests, while still maintaining the ability to guide the people towards the goal rather than control them. A statesman would have the opportunity to help guide the people towards a better reform that reviews previously used reform strategies and provides it the chance to work and see the effects rather than changing it before the pros and cons can really be seen.

A statesman is not only morally motivated but has a bedrock of principles which he uses to lead others well, with no empty rhetoric or hypocrisy. They are confident in their beliefs, and they build their platform on the core of the biblical principles which they firmly believe to be true and unchanging. A good leader and statesman also educates himself on how government works and should be structured and has a vision for his people, a long-term vision, for which he is determined to endure the toughest challenges because he knows where he wants to and can take them. Although minor changes to policy and method may be necessary, they continue to stand for truth and principles in difficult times.References

Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B. C., & Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public Value Governance: Moving Beyond Traditional Public Administration and the New Public Management. Public Administration Review, 445-456.

Rhodes, R. A. (2016). Recovering the Craft of Public Administration. Public Administration Review, 638-647.

** Please don’t just rephrase their info, but respond to it. Remember to answer question at the end if there is one. **


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