Problem Statement?The problem is most black people believe they have to give up their quality of life in order to manage their high blood pressure.
Research Question:?Can blacks maintain good quality of life and still manage high blood pressure
Warren-Findlow et al., (2001) examined the union between self-efficacy to management of high blood pressure among six prescribed clinical hypertension behaviors. The researchers sampled blacks with hypertension 190 to be exact. From this study, the researchers reported that over half of the participants showed good self-efficacy to managing hypertension. This led the authors to conclude that great self-viability was connected with expanded predominance adhering to a low sodium diet taking prescribed medications, adhering to a physical regime, participating in weight management and most importantly avoiding smoking.
This study was made valid by the use of standardized study design and procedure. Researchers used a cross-sectional study conducted in a specific location within a specific time period. The strength of the study selecting an adequate sample size and using a standardized methodology for testing the hypothesis presented. The authors presented their study results using descriptive statistics that are easy to interpret and presented the results in a clear way. However, the authors targeted a study population that was wide in terms of age. From age 22-88 years for 188 subjects who completed their study is a wide age distribution to rely for conclusion. Also, the study aimed at collecting data on self-reported efficacy activities and self-reporting may have significant elements of incorrect behavior reporting or may bring about inconsistence in reporting.
Elsewhere, Fiscella & Holt (2008) conducted a research to determine the racial mortality differences between Black Americans and White Americans dying from hypertension. The researchers assessed the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) among subjects of the two races. The study subjects were recruited from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey that occurred between 1999-2002. The authors modeled changes that occurred in terms of mortality rates that result from a reduction of average SBP between blacks and whites. The authors used observational studies of SBP and meta-analysis. According to the study results, the black race had a mean SBP of 6 mm Hg, which was considered higher than the total SBP of the black population and was higher by 7 mm than the whites that also suffered with hypertension. From the study results, the authors concluded that reduction of mortality will occur if the disparity concerning race while trying to control high blood pressure among adults will be reduced. The authors recommended that the primary care clinicians of hypertensive communities be extremely aware of the black patients because of their high risk level.
The validity of this study comes from the choice of methodology that the authors used to collect data. The authors used pre-existing data collected through National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the year of 1999-2002. The NHNES is periodic national survey of the health status of the United States population. This national data survey is collected through standardized questionnaire, physician examination and medical testing (Fiscella & Holt, 2008). This study also outlined clear participant recruitment criteria to the study. The strengths of the study included the utilization of national representative sample that estimate blood pressures among persons with hypertension. The study also used a mix of demographic representative factors such as race, sex and age representing a national mortality rate. However, this study was limiting in terms of the sample of black hypertensive blacks and it is not appropriate to looking into death toll in number and placing significance in this figure among one race because the medical field considers even one death significant.
In a recently published report, Kendall et al (2015) conducted a study to evaluate the beliefs of churchgoing blacks about the cause of high blood pressure and the effect of treatments not involving medications. The authors used a questionnaire survey that collected data concerning variables of participant?s modification of behavior, family history as well as the use of medication as a basis or the cause of hypertension, fruit and vegetable ingestion, salt intake as well as physical activity were all looked at. The target study population came from predominantly Black church faithful within Florida. The results from this study showed that respondents indicated that physical exertion was effective in lowering the numbers associated with high blood pressure. Moreover half the respondents reported that adherence to a diet that was high in fiber obtained from vegetables and fruits was effective in lowering high blood pressure. From this result the authors concluded that churchgoing black believers prefer non-pharmacologic treatment as an effective way of lowering the blood pressure (Kendall et al., 2015).
The strength of Kendal et al., (2015) study is that the researchers sampled a specific population with a specific variable of faith and hypertension. Nevertheless, the study had major weaknesses that included the scope and study population. The scope of the study was concerned with evaluation of the faith among black church goers on the health behaviors of hypertension where faith and attitude have limited contributions to medical diseases and healing as compared to medical treatment.
Calhoun et al., (2002) conducted a research to determine the prevalence of Hyperaldosteronism among white and black subjects who were resistant to high blood pressure. From this report, the prevalence of primary hyperaldosteronism has been higher historically as compared to previously reported times. The authors of this study conducted a prospective study of 88 consecutive patients who were referred to the study clinic area. Among the study variables were the resistant hypertension and 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion, which occurred when high amounts of salt were ingested. Other variables included plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity. The result of the study indicated that the prevalence of hyperaldosteronism were similar among black and white subjects. From the study, the authors concluded that there is strong evidence relating to hyperaldosteronism to the reasons for hypertension resistance among the white and black races. The strength of this research was developing a focus of a significant factor relating to resistant hypertension while the study is strengthened with suppression testing, which is evaluated among all subjects, (Calhoun, 2002). The weaknesses of the study are that the sample represented on 88 participants is too small to give an inference of the significant observation that work across the nation.
Horowitz et al., (2015) developed a research aimed at investigating the effects of uncontrolled hypertension and its complications among urban African-Americans. In their study, they focused on assessing the effects of dietary modification as a way of effective treatment of hypertension using a hypothesis that there is no clear information on how minority hypertension patients view diet as a way of treatment of this disease. From the study results, participants indicated that there are certain foods that can help treat hypertension. The study concluded that certain foods and food additive play an important role in the cause and treatment of hypertension. The strengths of this study is that the researchers used standardized research design to test their hypothesis. However, the research drew results from 88 participants. This number of participants may not be considered representative of a significant sample population especially when variables of the study had some elements of attitude change